Useful country information
Land area: 117,942 sq mi (305,470 sq km); total area: 130,558 sq mi (338,145 sq km)
Population: 5.542 million
Capital and largest city (2022 est.): Helsinki, 1,317,000
Helsinki: Capital City Profile
Other large cities: Espoo, 229,500; Tampere, 201,200; Vantaa, 189,200; Turku, 178,100
Monetary unit: Euro (formerly markka)
National name: Suomen Tasavalta?Republiken Finland
Languages: Finnish (official) 89.3%, Swedish (official) 5.3%, other (includes small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) 5.4% (2013 est.)
Ethnicity/race: Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)
Religions: Lutheran 78.4%, Orthodox 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.2%, none 19.2% (2010 est.)
National Holiday: Independence Day, December 6
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Ruled by Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and by Russia from 1809, Finland finally won its independence in 1917.
During World War II, Finland was able to successfully defend its freedom and fend off invasions by the Soviet Union and Germany.
In the subsequent half century, the Finns have made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now on par with Western Europe.
As a member of the European Union, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.
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