International phone code for Italy: +39
Standard EAN-13 (country barcode): 800-839
Useful country information
Total area: 116,305 sq mi (301,230 sq km)
Population (2022 est.):59.07 million
Capital and largest city (2022 est.): Rome, 4.78 million
Rome: Capital City Profile
Other large cities: Milan 2.909 million; Naples 2.373 million; Turin 1.613 million; Palermo 915,000; Bergamo 784,000 (2011)
Monetary unit: Euro (formerly lira)
Languages: Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German-speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
Ethnicity/race: Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian- and Greek-Italians in the south)
Religions: Christian 80% (overwhelming Roman Catholic with very small groups of Jehova Witnesses and Protestants), Muslims NEGL (about 700,000 but growing), Atheists and Agnostics 20%
National Holiday: Republic Day, June 2
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Italy became a nation-state belatedly - in 1861, when the city-states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL.
An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His disastrous alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II.
A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946, and economic revival followed. Italy was a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the European Monetary Union in 1999.
Persistent problems include illegal immigration, the ravages of organized crime, corruption, high unemployment, and the low incomes and technical standards of southern Italy compared with the more prosperous north.
Italy is famous for its huge contributions to the worlds of art, architecture, fashion and food.
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