International phone code for Poland: +48
Standard EAN-13 (country barcode): 590
Useful country information
Total area: 120,728 sq mi (312,685 sq km)
Population (2022 est.): 37.78 million
Capital and largest city (2022 est.): Warsaw, 1,790,000
Warsaw: Capital City Profile
Other large city: Krakow 756,000 (2011)
Monetary unit: Zloty
National name: Rzeczpospolita Polska
Language: Polish (official) 96.2%, Polish and non-Polish 2%, non-Polish 0.5%, unspecified 1.3% (2011 est.)
Ethnicity/race: Polish 96.9%, German 0.2%, Silesian 1.1%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 1.7% (2011)
Religions: Catholic 87.2% (includes Roman Catholic 86.9% and Greek Catholic, Armenian Catholic, and Byzantine-Slavic Catholic .3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentacostal), other 0.4% (includes Jehovah's Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Mormon), unspecified 10.8% (2012).
National Holiday: Independence Day, November 11.
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Poland, a country the size of New Mexico, is in north-central Europe. Most of the country is a plain with no natural boundaries except the Carpathian Mountains in the south and the Oder and Neisse rivers in the west.
Poland gained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but one that was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" (Solidarność) that over time became a political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency.
A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe, boosting hopes for acceptance to the EU. Poland became a full member of the EU on 1 May 2004.
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