Immunization is effective at preventing viral diseases and vaccines help your body's immune system produce its own protection (antibodies) against the virus.
As monkeypox is caused by a virus similar to the one that causes smallpox, vaccines designed for smallpox are considered effective in preventing or reducing the severity of monkeypox.
There are 2 vaccines that protect against monkeypox.
1- JYNNEOS is a vaccine Indicated for adults 18 years of age and older made by Bavarian Nordic Company.
JYNNEOS is administered as a live virus that is non-replicating. It is administered as two subcutaneous injections four weeks apart. There is no risk for spread to other people.
People who receive JYNNEOS are not considered vaccinated until 2 weeks after they receive the second dose of the vaccine.
The vaccine given as an injection in the upper arm.
2- ACAM2000 is administered as a live virus that is inoculated into the skin by pricking the skin surface.
The vaccine is not given with an injection needle. It is not a shot, like many vaccinations. The vaccine is given using a bifurcated needle that is dipped into the vaccine solution. The needle is then used to prick the.
Following a successful inoculation, a lesion will develop at the site of the vaccination (i.e., a “take”). The virus growing at the site of this lesion can be spread to other parts of the body or even to other people.
Individuals who receive vaccination with ACAM2000 are considered vaccinated within 28 days.
The vaccine given as a single dose and it is manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur Biologics Co.
Who is offered the vaccine?
The vaccine is recommended only for groups who are at higher risk of developing monkeypox.
If you've had significant contact with someone with confirmed monkeypox, you may be offered the vaccine.
The vaccine is most effective when given within 4 days from the date of exposure to prevent disease. If given between 4–14 days after the date of exposure, vaccination may reduce the symptoms of disease, but may not prevent the disease.
The vaccine may also be recommended for some people before they come into contact with monkeypox. This includes some healthcare workers if they’re likely to care for a patient with monkeypox.
For most persons who have been exposed to monkeypox, the risks from monkeypox disease are greater than the risks from the smallpox or monkeypox vaccine.
Most people who get the monkeypox vaccine have only minor reactions, like mild fever, tiredness, swollen glands, and redness and itching at the place where the vaccine is given. However, these vaccines do have more serious risks, too.
In certain groups of people, such as people with serious immune system problems, complications from ACAM2000 can be severe. This vaccine has the potential for more side effects and adverse events than the newer vaccine, JYNNEOS.
Risk on travelers
Cases are rare among travelers but have occurred.
Monkeypox is found mainly in Central and West Africa, often in tropical forested areas, although monkeypox has also spread in cities.
Currently there is an outbreak in non-African countries, and many patients affected have been men who had close social or intimate (including sexual) contact with men.